B. The General Prologue;
(2) the use of metaphors and understatements
(1) Life: “Renaissance man”, scholar, statesman, theorist, prose writer, diplomat, patron of arts
(7) King Lear
3. The Canterbury Tales
1. life: poet, dramatist, a Latin and Greek scholar, the “literary king” (Sons of Ben)
(4) Baptist society, preacher;
3. Samuel Johnson—poet, critic, essayist, lexicographer, editor.
A philosophical mariner (Raphael Hythloday) tells his voyages in which he discovers a land-Utopia.
(3) The significance of his plays.
b. made a living by writing and translating;
(2) works: poem (The Vanity of Human Wishes, London); criticism (The Lives of great Poets); preface.
a. studies at Oxford;
B. kings and the church (Henry II and Thomas);
(1) The metaphysical poets;
l Themes: puritanism, nationalism, humanism and Renaissance Neoclassicism—a Christian humanist.
(2) the plot.
d. the role of women.
(2) During the Germanic invasion
a. it was the first champion of national ideas and national languages; it created a national prose, equally adapted to handling scientific and artistic material.
Ambition vs. fate.
II. Sir Gawin and Green Knight.
b. Astrophel and Stella (108): sonnet sequence to Penelope Dvereux—platonic devotion.
(1) The 1st period was up to 1641, during which time he is to be seen chiefly as a son of the humanists and Elizabethans, although his Puritanism is not absent. L'Allegre and IL Pens eroso (1632) are his early masterpieces, in which we find Milton a true offspring of the Renaissance, a scholar of exquisite taste and rare culture. Next came Comus, a masque. The greatest of early creations was Lycidas, a pastoral elegy on the death of a college mate, Edward King.
a. the plot.
c. Lord Chancellor;
(2) The Cavalier poets.
(6) the 1st Folio, Quarto;
1. The historical background
(5) The 13th century.
2. The Overview of Literature.
(4) The significance of their essays.
(3) He developed the art of literary criticism in his essays and in the numerous prefaces to his poems.
(2) Grammar School;
(3) Queen visit to Castle;
(2) The second period is from 1641 to 1654, when the Puritan was in such complete ascendancy that he wrote almost no poetry. In 1641, he began a long period of pamphleteering for the puritan cause. For some 15 years, the Puritan in him alone ruled his writing. He sacrificed his poetic ambition to the call of the liberty for which Puritans were fighting.
1. Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard (courtly makers)
(1) born in Ireland;
(3) the mixture of pagan and Christian elements
(2) three groups of poems:
C. the beginning of the Parliament
(2) Italian period
1. The revolution period
Miracle play or mystery play is a form of medieval drama that came from dramatization of the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. It developed from the 10th to the 16th century, reaching its height in the 15th century. The simple lyric character of the early texts was enlarged by the addition of dialogue and dramatic action. Eventually the performance was moved to the churchyard and the marketplace.
1. Thomas More
a. The Peasants Revolt (1453)
4. Features of Milton’s works.
(1) He established the heroic couplet as the fashion for satiric, didactic, and descriptive poetry.
(1) The year 1066: Norman Conquest.
V. Metaphysical Poets and Cavalier Poets.
l Many allusions to classical writers.
(3) changeable in attitude.
IV. John Bunyan
(2) an advocate of classical drama and a forerunner of classicism in English literature.
f. military Organization;
Part IV. Satire—mankind.
3. Non-dramatic poetry
A. Norman nobles and serfs;
(4) Milton has always been admired for his sublimity of thought and majesty of expression.
c. Defense of Poesy: an apology for imaginative literature—beginning of literary criticism.
Part II. Satire—the legal system; condemnation of war.
(3) Wace—Le Roman de Brut.
a. English gentleman;
(1) the idea of “humour”.
(3) the University Wits.
The other group prevailing in this period was that of Cavalier poets. They were often courtiers who stood on the side of the king, and called themselves “sons” of Ben Jonson. The Cavalier poets wrote light poetry, polished and elegant, amorous and gay, but often superficial. Most of their verses were short songs, pretty madrigals, love fancies characterized by lightness of heart and of morals. Cavalier poems have the limpidity of the Elizabethan lyric without its imaginative flights. They are lighter and neater but less fresh than the Elizabethan’s.
a. Arcadia: pastoral romance;
b. his method is to weigh and balance maters, indicating the ideal course of action and the practical one, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each, but leaving the reader to make the final decisions. (arguments)
c. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus.
(9) Antony and Cleopatra.
Chapter 3 English Literature in the Renaissance
a. Catholic family;
(1) Wyatt: introducing sonnets.
d. the rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg.
Literary style-modeled on the ancients.
Republicanism vs. dictatorship.
III. William Langland.
l The general end--A romantic and allegorical epic—steps to virtue.
(4) Julius Caesar
IV. English Drama
(6) The 14th century.
(5) the Dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin.
(5) The Age of Dryden.
VI. John Dryden.
i. feasts and festival: Halloween, Easter; j. legal system.
(4) Literary career—four decades.
(3) Milton is a great stylist. He is famous for his grand style noted for its dignity and polish, which is the result of his life-long classical and biblical study.
(4) The 12th century.
(5) Poet Laureate
(3) the significance.
II. The Overview of the Literature (1485-16500)
l Two-level function: part of the story and part of allegory (symbolic meaning)
gap between appearance and reality.
(5) London, the Globe Theatre: small part and proprietor;
3. Major plays
C. The Tale Proper.
VII. The beginning of English Drama.
(4) The restoration drama.
VI. Ben Jonson
B. dominance of French and Latin;
A. the crusade and knights.
(2) Milton wrote many different types of poetry. He is especially a great master of blank verse. He learned much from Shakespeare and first used blank verse in non-dramatic works.
a. the House of Lords and the House of Commons—conflict between the Parliament and Kings;
3. The literary features.
b. native or popular drama.
e. the Hundred Years’ War—starting.
Chapter 1 English Literature of Anglo-Saxon Period
II. The Overview of the Literature (1640-1688)
(1) Paradise Lost
The term “metaphysical poetry” is commonly used to designate the works of the 17th century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne. Pressured by the harsh, uncomfortable and curious age, the metaphysical poets sought to shatter myths and replace them with new philosophies, new sciences, new words and new poetry. They tried to break away from the conventional fashion of Elizabethan love poetry, and favoured in poetry for a more colloquial language and tone, a tightness of expression and the single-minded working out of a theme or argument.
a. translation of Bible;
(1) He introduced from France the rhymed stanza of various types.
c. the great cham of literature.
(3) The spoken English of the time consisted of several dialects, and Chaucer did much in making the dialect of London the standard for the modern English speech.
c. Faerie Queene:
(2) Volpone the Fox
b. They give a true picture of the social life of England in the 18th century.
(1) 1564, Stratford-on-Avon;
(2) two influences.
(1) The restoration of Charles II ushered in a literature characterized by reason, moderation, good taste, deft management, and simplicity. (school of Ben Jonson)
a. The part one is organized as dialogue with mariner depicting his philosophy.
(2) poor family;
1. Metaphysical Poets
(1) the stories from the Celtic lands of Wales and Brittany—great myths of the Middle Ages.
Printing press—readership—growth of middle class—trade-education for laypeople-centralization of power-intellectual life-exploration-new impetus and direction of literature.
2. the plot.
(2) Utopia: the first English science fiction.
(2) poet, dramatist, critic, prose writer, satirist.
(2) Geoffrye of Monmouth—Historia Regum Britanniae—King Authur.
Good over evil.
c. the change of Church.
b. studies law at Lincoln Inn;
2. Cavalier Poets
b. brilliant and fascinating personality;
Humanism-study of the literature of classical antiquity and reformed education.
e. social organization: clan or tribes.
The second tendency by Donne: metaphysical style—complexity and ingenuity.
II. English poetry.
(2) The social situations soon after the conquest.
2. Morality Plays.
(1) Before the Germanic invasion
3. Major Works
e. An Essay on Criticism (magogom);
c. theme: justify the ways of God to man.
Part III. Satire—ridiculous scientific experiment.
h. the heroic couplet—finish, elegance, wit, pointedness;
(3) Milton: the literary and philosophical heritage of the Renaissance merged with Protestant political and moral conviction
a. the gogoical examples.
a. learned Greek at Canterbury College, Oxford;
2. Piers the Plowman
c. the nature of the book: attackigogo time.
(3) The great philosophical and political treatises of the time emphasize rationalism.
A Concise History of British Literature
(1) Everyone in His Humour—”humour”; three unities.
Passion vs. reason
(4) weakness: lack of imagination.
Chapter 5 English Literature of the 18th Century
IV. English Novels
I. A Historical Background
(2) Major works
3. Gulliver’s Travels.
(3) the theme.
g. the Black Death.
h. economy: coins, trade, slavery;
V. William Shakespeare
b. The War of Roses between Lancasters and Yorks.
2. Literary career.
(1) Milton is one of the very few truly great English writers who is also a prominent figure in politics, and who is both a great poet and an important prose writer. The two most essential things to be remembered about him are his Puritanism and his republicanism.
a. The Shepherds Calendar: the budding of English poetry in Renaissance.
a. theme: fair, true, kind.
i. The translation of Bible by Wycliff.
2. The Overview of the culture
B. Magna Carta (1215);
The first tendency by Sidney and Spenser: ornate, florid, highly figured style.
2. Christopher Marlowe: greatest playwright before Shakespeare and most gifted of the Wits.
Written in Latin, two parts, the second—place of nowhere.
(1) Life: first igogoical poetry—then in drama.
Part I. Satire—the Whig and the Tories, Anglican Church and Catholic Church.
d. the starting of Tudor Monarchy(1485)
(7) Retired, son—Hamnet; H. 1616.
h. the Peasants’ Revolt—1381.
a. the classics: classical in form and English in content;
(3) The 11th century.
2. The literary overview.
c. the printing-press—William Caxton.
II. Neo-classicism. (a general description)
III. English Prose
2. The content.
b. the drama stands highest in popular estimation: Marlowe – Shakespeare – Jonson.
(2) Howard: introducing sonnets and writing the first blank verse.
3. Major plays-men-centered.
d. social classes structure: hide-hundred; eoldermen (lord) – thane - middle class (freemen) - lower class (slave or bondmen: theow);
The third tendency by Johgogotyle.
VI. Thomas Malory and English Prose
(2) He is the first great poet who wrote in the current English language.
A. The Framework;
1. A general survey.
2. Literary Career: three periods
(3) His contribution:
b. ill health;
(3) Neo-classicism: a revival in the seventeenth agogo of order, balance, and harmony in literature. John Dryden and Alexander Pope were major expogogochool.
B. restoration of the church.
g. Translation of two epics.
(2) Joseph Addison: studies at Oxford, secretary of state, created a literary periodical “Spectator” (with Steele, 1711)
(1) the use of alliteration
(1) puritan age;
1. a general introduction.
III. The Old English Prose
D. English and Latin: official languages (the end)
III. Literature of Satire: Jonathan Swift.
(1) Everyman marks the beginning of modern drama.
3. Edmund Spenser
(2) studies at Trinity College;
(2) He developed a direct and concise prose style.
The interlude, which grew out of the morality, was intended, as its name implies, to be used more as a filler than as the main part of an entertainment. As its best it was short, witty, simple in plot, suited for the diversion of guests at a banquet, or for the relaxation of the audience between the divisions of a serious play. It was essentially an indoors performance, and generally of an aristocratic nature.
c. taught himself by reading and translating;
(4) Satiric literature.
(1) The Enlightenment.
2. Works: The Battle of Books, A Tale of a Tub, A Modest Proposal, Gulliver’s Travels.
(1) French period
1. Life: educated at Cambridge—visiting the continent—involved into the revolution—persecuted—writing epics.
(10) The Tempest
4. His Contribution.
2. Sir Philip Sidney—poet, critic, prose writer
(2) Literature: a. poetry: two types; b. prose: two figures.
A. the centralized government;
(3) Samson Agonistes.
(3) The champion of neoclassical ideas.
2. His influences.
g. Church function: spirit, civil service, education;
(3) Spectator Club.
When the literary historian seeks to assign to each age its favourite form of literature, he finds no difficulty in dealing with our own time. As the Middle Ages delighted in long romantic narrative poems, the Elizabethans in drama, the Englishman of the reigns of Anne and the early Georges in didactic and satirical verse, so the public of our day is enamored of the novel. Almost all types of literary production continue to appear, but whether we judge from the lists of publishers, the statistics of public libraries, or general conversation, we find abundant evidence of the enormous preponderance of this kind of literary entertainment in popular favour.
(2) philosophical ideas: advancement of science—people:servants and interpreters of nature—method: a child before nature—facts and observations: experimental.
The fourth tendency by Milton: central Christian and Biblical tradition.
b. The Jew of Malta;
(2) The ideals of impartial investigation and scientific experimentation promoted by the newly founded Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge (1662) were influential igogoe as an instrument of rational communication.
1. Miracle Plays.
(4) The romance.
A. The legend of Robin Hood;
2. The restoration period.
c. In their hands, the English essay completely established itself as a literary genre. Using it as a form of character sketching and story telling, they ushered in the dawn of the modern novel.
b. The part two is a description of the island kingdom where gold and silver are worn by criminal, religious freedom is total and no one owns anything.
A morality play is a play enforcing a moral truth or lesson by means of the speech and action of characters which are personified abstractions – figures representing vices and virtues, qualities of the human mind, or abstract conceptions in general.
1. What is prose?
(1) Romeo and Juliet--tragic love and fate
d. friend of Addison, Steele and Swift.
(3) Spenserian Stanza.
(1) The mixture of pagan and Christian spirit.
V. Popular Ballads.
Chapter 4 English Literature of the 17th Century
2. Addison and Steele
(1) The Venerable Bede
a. he was a master of numerous and varied styles.
(1) life: Cambridge - humanism in Paris – knighted - Lord Chancellor – bribery - focusing on philosophy and literature.
Chapter 2 English Literature of the Late Medieval Ages
l 12 books and 12 virtues: Holiness, temperance, justice and courtesy.
(1) the representative of classicism in the Restoration.
The effect of humanism-the disseminatiogogoible attitude of its classically educated adherents.
2. Francis Bacon: writer, philosopher and statesman
(1) life: Cambridge - Sidney’s friend - “Areopagus” – Ireland - Westminster Abbey.
(1) Venus and Adonis; The Rape of Lucrece.
1. A general introduction.
(4) the chief editor of The Examiner;
(2) The Merchant of Venice.
f. The Rape of Lock;
b. the rise of towns.
(4) marriage to Anne Hathaway;
b. a elegant Latin scholar and the father of English prose: he composed works in English, translated from Latin into English biography, wrote History of Richard III.
f. the development of the trade: London.
2. The Pilgrim Progress
(1) The allegory in dream form.
(1) Richard Steele: poet, playwright, essayist, publisher of newspaper.
Petrarchan conceits and original feelings-moving to creativeness—building of a narrative story; theme-love originality-act of writing.
b. Amoretti and Epithalamion: sonnet sequence
(7) The 15th century.
(3) master period
(2) Paradise Regained.
(5) the second half of the 14th century: Langland, Gawin poet, Chaucer.
1. The Historical Background.
a. Their writings in “The Tatler”, and “The Spectator” provide a new code of social morality for the rising bourgeoisie.
1. The Historical Background.
(3) Henry IV.
III. John Milton
1. Alexander Pope
(3) “Essays”: 57.
f. the Utopia
(3) parliamentary army;
(2) Alfred the Great
(2) The rise of English novels.
d. the book and the Republic: an attempt to describe the Republic in a new way, but it possesses an modern character and the resemblance is in externals.
c. the form: three quatrains and a couplet.
2. Dramatic career
Reconciliation; reality and illusion.
(5) prison, writing the book.
(3) The third period is from 1655 to 1671, when humanist and Puritan have been fused into an exalted entity. This period is the greatest in his literary life, epics and some famous sonnets. The three long poems are the fruit of the long contest within Milton of Renaissance tradition and his Puritan faith. They form the greatest accomplishments of any English poet except Shakespeare. In Milton alone, it would seem, Puritanism could not extinguish the lover of beauty. In these works we find humanism and Puritanism merged in magnificence.
b. two major parts: a handsome young man of noble birth; a lady in dark complexion.
I. A Historical Background
e. it played a key role in the Humanist awakening of the 16th century which moved away from the Medieval otherworldliness towards Renaissance secularism.
(3) worked as a secretary;